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class.c

// Compiler implementation of the D programming language
// Copyright (c) 1999-2009 by Digital Mars
// All Rights Reserved
// written by Walter Bright
// http://www.digitalmars.com
// License for redistribution is by either the Artistic License
// in artistic.txt, or the GNU General Public License in gnu.txt.
// See the included readme.txt for details.

#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <assert.h>

#include "root.h"
#include "rmem.h"

#include "enum.h"
#include "init.h"
#include "attrib.h"
#include "declaration.h"
#include "aggregate.h"
#include "id.h"
#include "mtype.h"
#include "scope.h"
#include "module.h"
#include "expression.h"
#include "statement.h"

/********************************* ClassDeclaration ****************************/

ClassDeclaration *ClassDeclaration::classinfo;
ClassDeclaration *ClassDeclaration::object;

ClassDeclaration::ClassDeclaration(Loc loc, Identifier *id, BaseClasses *baseclasses)
    : AggregateDeclaration(loc, id)
{
    static char msg[] = "only object.d can define this reserved class name";

    if (baseclasses)
      this->baseclasses = *baseclasses;
    baseClass = NULL;

    interfaces_dim = 0;
    interfaces = NULL;

    vtblInterfaces = NULL;

    //printf("ClassDeclaration(%s), dim = %d\n", id->toChars(), this->baseclasses.dim);

    // For forward references
    type = new TypeClass(this);
    handle = type;

    staticCtor = NULL;
    staticDtor = NULL;

#if IN_DMD
    vtblsym = NULL;
#endif
    vclassinfo = NULL;

    if (id)
    { // Look for special class names

      if (id == Id::__sizeof || id == Id::alignof || id == Id::mangleof)
          error("illegal class name");

      // BUG: What if this is the wrong TypeInfo, i.e. it is nested?
      if (id->toChars()[0] == 'T')
      {
          if (id == Id::TypeInfo)
          { if (Type::typeinfo)
                Type::typeinfo->error("%s", msg);
            Type::typeinfo = this;
          }

          if (id == Id::TypeInfo_Class)
          { if (Type::typeinfoclass)
                Type::typeinfoclass->error("%s", msg);
            Type::typeinfoclass = this;
          }

          if (id == Id::TypeInfo_Interface)
          { if (Type::typeinfointerface)
                Type::typeinfointerface->error("%s", msg);
            Type::typeinfointerface = this;
          }

          if (id == Id::TypeInfo_Struct)
          { if (Type::typeinfostruct)
                Type::typeinfostruct->error("%s", msg);
            Type::typeinfostruct = this;
          }

          if (id == Id::TypeInfo_Typedef)
          { if (Type::typeinfotypedef)
                Type::typeinfotypedef->error("%s", msg);
            Type::typeinfotypedef = this;
          }

          if (id == Id::TypeInfo_Pointer)
          { if (Type::typeinfopointer)
                Type::typeinfopointer->error("%s", msg);
            Type::typeinfopointer = this;
          }

          if (id == Id::TypeInfo_Array)
          { if (Type::typeinfoarray)
                Type::typeinfoarray->error("%s", msg);
            Type::typeinfoarray = this;
          }

          if (id == Id::TypeInfo_StaticArray)
          { //if (Type::typeinfostaticarray)
                //Type::typeinfostaticarray->error("%s", msg);
            Type::typeinfostaticarray = this;
          }

          if (id == Id::TypeInfo_AssociativeArray)
          { if (Type::typeinfoassociativearray)
                Type::typeinfoassociativearray->error("%s", msg);
            Type::typeinfoassociativearray = this;
          }

          if (id == Id::TypeInfo_Enum)
          { if (Type::typeinfoenum)
                Type::typeinfoenum->error("%s", msg);
            Type::typeinfoenum = this;
          }

          if (id == Id::TypeInfo_Function)
          { if (Type::typeinfofunction)
                Type::typeinfofunction->error("%s", msg);
            Type::typeinfofunction = this;
          }

          if (id == Id::TypeInfo_Delegate)
          { if (Type::typeinfodelegate)
                Type::typeinfodelegate->error("%s", msg);
            Type::typeinfodelegate = this;
          }

          if (id == Id::TypeInfo_Tuple)
          { if (Type::typeinfotypelist)
                Type::typeinfotypelist->error("%s", msg);
            Type::typeinfotypelist = this;
          }

#if DMDV2
          if (id == Id::TypeInfo_Const)
          { if (Type::typeinfoconst)
                Type::typeinfoconst->error("%s", msg);
            Type::typeinfoconst = this;
          }

          if (id == Id::TypeInfo_Invariant)
          { if (Type::typeinfoinvariant)
                Type::typeinfoinvariant->error("%s", msg);
            Type::typeinfoinvariant = this;
          }

          if (id == Id::TypeInfo_Shared)
          { if (Type::typeinfoshared)
                Type::typeinfoshared->error("%s", msg);
            Type::typeinfoshared = this;
          }
#endif
      }

      if (id == Id::Object)
      {   if (object)
            object->error("%s", msg);
          object = this;
      }

      if (id == Id::ClassInfo)
      {   if (classinfo)
            classinfo->error("%s", msg);
          classinfo = this;
      }

      if (id == Id::ModuleInfo)
      {   if (Module::moduleinfo)
            Module::moduleinfo->error("%s", msg);
          Module::moduleinfo = this;
      }
    }

    com = 0;
    isauto = 0;
    isabstract = 0;
    inuse = 0;
}

Dsymbol *ClassDeclaration::syntaxCopy(Dsymbol *s)
{
    ClassDeclaration *cd;

    //printf("ClassDeclaration::syntaxCopy('%s')\n", toChars());
    if (s)
      cd = (ClassDeclaration *)s;
    else
      cd = new ClassDeclaration(loc, ident, NULL);

    cd->storage_class |= storage_class;

    cd->baseclasses.setDim(this->baseclasses.dim);
    for (int i = 0; i < cd->baseclasses.dim; i++)
    {
      BaseClass *b = (BaseClass *)this->baseclasses.data[i];
      BaseClass *b2 = new BaseClass(b->type->syntaxCopy(), b->protection);
      cd->baseclasses.data[i] = b2;
    }

    ScopeDsymbol::syntaxCopy(cd);
    return cd;
}

void ClassDeclaration::semantic(Scope *sc)
{   int i;
    unsigned offset;

    //printf("ClassDeclaration::semantic(%s), type = %p, sizeok = %d, this = %p\n", toChars(), type, sizeok, this);
    //printf("\tparent = %p, '%s'\n", sc->parent, sc->parent ? sc->parent->toChars() : "");
    //printf("sc->stc = %x\n", sc->stc);

    //{ static int n;  if (++n == 20) *(char*)0=0; }

    if (!ident)         // if anonymous class
    { const char *id = "__anonclass";

      ident = Identifier::generateId(id);
    }

    if (!sc)
      sc = scope;
    if (!parent && sc->parent && !sc->parent->isModule())
      parent = sc->parent;

    type = type->semantic(loc, sc);
    handle = type;

    if (!members)             // if forward reference
    { //printf("\tclass '%s' is forward referenced\n", toChars());
      return;
    }
    if (symtab)
    { if (!scope)
      {   //printf("\tsemantic for '%s' is already completed\n", toChars());
          return;       // semantic() already completed
      }
    }
    else
      symtab = new DsymbolTable();

    Scope *scx = NULL;
    if (scope)
    { sc = scope;
      scx = scope;            // save so we don't make redundant copies
      scope = NULL;
    }
#ifdef IN_GCC
    methods.setDim(0);
#endif

    if (sc->stc & STCdeprecated)
    {
      isdeprecated = 1;
    }

    if (sc->linkage == LINKcpp)
      error("cannot create C++ classes");

    // Expand any tuples in baseclasses[]
    for (i = 0; i < baseclasses.dim; )
    { BaseClass *b = (BaseClass *)baseclasses.data[i];
//printf("test1 %s %s\n", toChars(), b->type->toChars());
      b->type = b->type->semantic(loc, sc);
//printf("test2\n");
      Type *tb = b->type->toBasetype();

      if (tb->ty == Ttuple)
      {   TypeTuple *tup = (TypeTuple *)tb;
          enum PROT protection = b->protection;
          baseclasses.remove(i);
          size_t dim = Argument::dim(tup->arguments);
          for (size_t j = 0; j < dim; j++)
          { Argument *arg = Argument::getNth(tup->arguments, j);
            b = new BaseClass(arg->type, protection);
            baseclasses.insert(i + j, b);
          }
      }
      else
          i++;
    }

    // See if there's a base class as first in baseclasses[]
    if (baseclasses.dim)
    { TypeClass *tc;
      BaseClass *b;
      Type *tb;

      b = (BaseClass *)baseclasses.data[0];
      //b->type = b->type->semantic(loc, sc);
      tb = b->type->toBasetype();
      if (tb->ty != Tclass)
      {   error("base type must be class or interface, not %s", b->type->toChars());
          baseclasses.remove(0);
      }
      else
      {
          tc = (TypeClass *)(tb);

          if (tc->sym->isDeprecated())
          {
            if (!isDeprecated())
            {
                // Deriving from deprecated class makes this one deprecated too
                isdeprecated = 1;

                tc->checkDeprecated(loc, sc);
            }
          }

          if (tc->sym->isInterfaceDeclaration())
            ;
          else
          {
            for (ClassDeclaration *cdb = tc->sym; cdb; cdb = cdb->baseClass)
            {
                if (cdb == this)
                {
                  error("circular inheritance");
                  baseclasses.remove(0);
                  goto L7;
                }
            }
            if (!tc->sym->symtab || tc->sym->sizeok == 0)
            {   // Try to resolve forward reference
                if (sc->mustsemantic && tc->sym->scope)
                  tc->sym->semantic(NULL);
            }
            if (!tc->sym->symtab || tc->sym->scope || tc->sym->sizeok == 0)
            {
                //printf("%s: forward reference of base class %s\n", toChars(), tc->sym->toChars());
                //error("forward reference of base class %s", baseClass->toChars());
                // Forward reference of base class, try again later
                //printf("\ttry later, forward reference of base class %s\n", tc->sym->toChars());
                scope = scx ? scx : new Scope(*sc);
                scope->setNoFree();
                if (tc->sym->scope)
                    tc->sym->scope->module->addDeferredSemantic(tc->sym);
                scope->module->addDeferredSemantic(this);
                return;
            }
            else
            {   baseClass = tc->sym;
                b->base = baseClass;
            }
           L7: ;
          }
      }
    }

    // Treat the remaining entries in baseclasses as interfaces
    // Check for errors, handle forward references
    for (i = (baseClass ? 1 : 0); i < baseclasses.dim; )
    { TypeClass *tc;
      BaseClass *b;
      Type *tb;

      b = (BaseClass *)baseclasses.data[i];
      b->type = b->type->semantic(loc, sc);
      tb = b->type->toBasetype();
      if (tb->ty == Tclass)
          tc = (TypeClass *)tb;
      else
          tc = NULL;
      if (!tc || !tc->sym->isInterfaceDeclaration())
      {
          error("base type must be interface, not %s", b->type->toChars());
          baseclasses.remove(i);
          continue;
      }
      else
      {
          if (tc->sym->isDeprecated())
          {
            if (!isDeprecated())
            {
                // Deriving from deprecated class makes this one deprecated too
                isdeprecated = 1;

                tc->checkDeprecated(loc, sc);
            }
          }

          // Check for duplicate interfaces
          for (size_t j = (baseClass ? 1 : 0); j < i; j++)
          {
            BaseClass *b2 = (BaseClass *)baseclasses.data[j];
            if (b2->base == tc->sym)
                error("inherits from duplicate interface %s", b2->base->toChars());
          }

          if (!tc->sym->symtab)
          {   // Try to resolve forward reference
            if (sc->mustsemantic && tc->sym->scope)
                tc->sym->semantic(NULL);
          }

          b->base = tc->sym;
          if (!b->base->symtab || b->base->scope)
          {
            //error("forward reference of base class %s", baseClass->toChars());
            // Forward reference of base, try again later
            //printf("\ttry later, forward reference of base %s\n", baseClass->toChars());
            scope = scx ? scx : new Scope(*sc);
            scope->setNoFree();
            if (tc->sym->scope)
                tc->sym->scope->module->addDeferredSemantic(tc->sym);
            scope->module->addDeferredSemantic(this);
            return;
          }
      }
      i++;
    }


    // If no base class, and this is not an Object, use Object as base class
    if (!baseClass && ident != Id::Object)
    {
      // BUG: what if Object is redefined in an inner scope?
      Type *tbase = new TypeIdentifier(0, Id::Object);
      BaseClass *b;
      TypeClass *tc;
      Type *bt;

      if (!object)
      {
          error("missing or corrupt object.d");
          fatal();
      }
      bt = tbase->semantic(loc, sc)->toBasetype();
      b = new BaseClass(bt, PROTpublic);
      baseclasses.shift(b);
      assert(b->type->ty == Tclass);
      tc = (TypeClass *)(b->type);
      baseClass = tc->sym;
      assert(!baseClass->isInterfaceDeclaration());
      b->base = baseClass;
    }

    interfaces_dim = baseclasses.dim;
    interfaces = (BaseClass **)baseclasses.data;


    if (baseClass)
    {
      if (baseClass->storage_class & STCfinal)
          error("cannot inherit from final class %s", baseClass->toChars());

      interfaces_dim--;
      interfaces++;

      // Copy vtbl[] from base class
      vtbl.setDim(baseClass->vtbl.dim);
      memcpy(vtbl.data, baseClass->vtbl.data, sizeof(void *) * vtbl.dim);

      // Inherit properties from base class
      com = baseClass->isCOMclass();
      isauto = baseClass->isauto;
      vthis = baseClass->vthis;
      storage_class |= baseClass->storage_class & STC_TYPECTOR;
    }
    else
    {
      // No base class, so this is the root of the class hierarchy
      vtbl.setDim(0);
      vtbl.push(this);        // leave room for classinfo as first member
    }

    protection = sc->protection;
    storage_class |= sc->stc;

    if (sizeok == 0)
    {
      interfaceSemantic(sc);

      for (i = 0; i < members->dim; i++)
      {
          Dsymbol *s = (Dsymbol *)members->data[i];
          s->addMember(sc, this, 1);
      }

      /* If this is a nested class, add the hidden 'this'
       * member which is a pointer to the enclosing scope.
       */
      if (vthis)        // if inheriting from nested class
      {   // Use the base class's 'this' member
          isnested = 1;
          if (storage_class & STCstatic)
            error("static class cannot inherit from nested class %s", baseClass->toChars());
          if (toParent2() != baseClass->toParent2())
          {
            if (toParent2())
            {
                error("is nested within %s, but super class %s is nested within %s",
                  toParent2()->toChars(),
                  baseClass->toChars(),
                  baseClass->toParent2()->toChars());
            }
            else
            {
                error("is not nested, but super class %s is nested within %s",
                  baseClass->toChars(),
                  baseClass->toParent2()->toChars());
            }
            isnested = 0;
          }
      }
      else if (!(storage_class & STCstatic))
      {   Dsymbol *s = toParent2();
          if (s)
          {
            AggregateDeclaration *ad = s->isClassDeclaration();
            FuncDeclaration *fd = s->isFuncDeclaration();


            if (ad || fd)
            {   isnested = 1;
                Type *t;
                if (ad)
                  t = ad->handle;
                else if (fd)
                { AggregateDeclaration *ad = fd->isMember2();
                  if (ad)
                      t = ad->handle;
                  else
                  {
                      t = Type::tvoidptr;
                  }
                }
                else
                  assert(0);
                if (t->ty == Tstruct)     // ref to struct
                  t = Type::tvoidptr;
                assert(!vthis);
                vthis = new ThisDeclaration(loc, t);
                members->push(vthis);
            }
          }
      }
    }

    if (storage_class & (STCauto | STCscope))
      isauto = 1;
    if (storage_class & STCabstract)
      isabstract = 1;
    if (storage_class & STCimmutable)
      type = type->invariantOf();
    else if (storage_class & STCconst)
      type = type->constOf();
    else if (storage_class & STCshared)
      type = type->sharedOf();

    sc = sc->push(this);
    sc->stc &= ~(STCfinal | STCauto | STCscope | STCstatic |
             STCabstract | STCdeprecated | STC_TYPECTOR | STCtls | STCgshared);
    sc->stc |= storage_class & STC_TYPECTOR;
    sc->parent = this;
    sc->inunion = 0;

    if (isCOMclass())
    {
#if _WIN32
      sc->linkage = LINKwindows;
#else
      /* This enables us to use COM objects under Linux and
       * work with things like XPCOM
       */
      sc->linkage = LINKc;
#endif
    }
    sc->protection = PROTpublic;
    sc->explicitProtection = 0;
    sc->structalign = 8;
    structalign = sc->structalign;
    if (baseClass)
    { sc->offset = baseClass->structsize;
      alignsize = baseClass->alignsize;
//    if (isnested)
//        sc->offset += PTRSIZE;    // room for uplevel context pointer
    }
    else
    { sc->offset = PTRSIZE * 2;     // allow room for __vptr and __monitor
      alignsize = PTRSIZE;
    }
    structsize = sc->offset;
    Scope scsave = *sc;
    int members_dim = members->dim;
    sizeok = 0;
    for (i = 0; i < members_dim; i++)
    {
      Dsymbol *s = (Dsymbol *)members->data[i];
      s->semantic(sc);
    }

    if (sizeok == 2)
    { // semantic() failed because of forward references.
      // Unwind what we did, and defer it for later
      fields.setDim(0);
      structsize = 0;
      alignsize = 0;
      structalign = 0;

      sc = sc->pop();

      scope = scx ? scx : new Scope(*sc);
      scope->setNoFree();
      scope->module->addDeferredSemantic(this);

      //printf("\tsemantic('%s') failed due to forward references\n", toChars());
      return;
    }

    //printf("\tsemantic('%s') successful\n", toChars());

    structsize = sc->offset;
    //members->print();

    /* Look for special member functions.
     * They must be in this class, not in a base class.
     */
    ctor = (CtorDeclaration *)search(0, Id::ctor, 0);
    if (ctor && (ctor->toParent() != this || !ctor->isCtorDeclaration()))
      ctor = NULL;

//    dtor = (DtorDeclaration *)search(Id::dtor, 0);
//    if (dtor && dtor->toParent() != this)
//    dtor = NULL;

//    inv = (InvariantDeclaration *)search(Id::classInvariant, 0);
//    if (inv && inv->toParent() != this)
//    inv = NULL;

    // Can be in base class
    aggNew    = (NewDeclaration *)search(0, Id::classNew, 0);
    aggDelete = (DeleteDeclaration *)search(0, Id::classDelete, 0);

    // If this class has no constructor, but base class does, create
    // a constructor:
    //    this() { }
    if (!ctor && baseClass && baseClass->ctor)
    {
      //printf("Creating default this(){} for class %s\n", toChars());
      CtorDeclaration *ctor = new CtorDeclaration(loc, 0, NULL, 0);
      ctor->fbody = new CompoundStatement(0, new Statements());
      members->push(ctor);
      ctor->addMember(sc, this, 1);
      *sc = scsave;     // why? What about sc->nofree?
      sc->offset = structsize;
      ctor->semantic(sc);
      this->ctor = ctor;
      defaultCtor = ctor;
    }

#if 0
    if (baseClass)
    { if (!aggDelete)
          aggDelete = baseClass->aggDelete;
      if (!aggNew)
          aggNew = baseClass->aggNew;
    }
#endif

    // Allocate instance of each new interface
    for (i = 0; i < vtblInterfaces->dim; i++)
    {
      BaseClass *b = (BaseClass *)vtblInterfaces->data[i];
      unsigned thissize = PTRSIZE;

      alignmember(structalign, thissize, &sc->offset);
      assert(b->offset == 0);
      b->offset = sc->offset;

      // Take care of single inheritance offsets
      while (b->baseInterfaces_dim)
      {
          b = &b->baseInterfaces[0];
          b->offset = sc->offset;
      }

      sc->offset += thissize;
      if (alignsize < thissize)
          alignsize = thissize;
    }
    structsize = sc->offset;
    sizeok = 1;
    Module::dprogress++;

    dtor = buildDtor(sc);

    sc->pop();

#if 0 // Do not call until toObjfile() because of forward references
    // Fill in base class vtbl[]s
    for (i = 0; i < vtblInterfaces->dim; i++)
    {
      BaseClass *b = (BaseClass *)vtblInterfaces->data[i];

      //b->fillVtbl(this, &b->vtbl, 1);
    }
#endif
    //printf("-ClassDeclaration::semantic(%s), type = %p\n", toChars(), type);
}

void ClassDeclaration::toCBuffer(OutBuffer *buf, HdrGenState *hgs)
{
    if (!isAnonymous())
    {
      buf->printf("%s ", kind());
      buf->writestring(toChars());
      if (baseclasses.dim)
          buf->writestring(" : ");
    }
    for (int i = 0; i < baseclasses.dim; i++)
    {
      BaseClass *b = (BaseClass *)baseclasses.data[i];

      if (i)
          buf->writeByte(',');
      //buf->writestring(b->base->ident->toChars());
      b->type->toCBuffer(buf, NULL, hgs);
    }
    buf->writenl();
    buf->writeByte('{');
    buf->writenl();
    for (int i = 0; i < members->dim; i++)
    {
      Dsymbol *s = (Dsymbol *)members->data[i];

      buf->writestring("    ");
      s->toCBuffer(buf, hgs);
    }
    buf->writestring("}");
    buf->writenl();
}

#if 0
void ClassDeclaration::defineRef(Dsymbol *s)
{
    ClassDeclaration *cd;

    AggregateDeclaration::defineRef(s);
    cd = s->isClassDeclaration();
    baseType = cd->baseType;
    cd->baseType = NULL;
}
#endif

/*********************************************
 * Determine if 'this' is a base class of cd.
 * This is used to detect circular inheritance only.
 */

int ClassDeclaration::isBaseOf2(ClassDeclaration *cd)
{
    if (!cd)
      return 0;
    //printf("ClassDeclaration::isBaseOf2(this = '%s', cd = '%s')\n", toChars(), cd->toChars());
    for (int i = 0; i < cd->baseclasses.dim; i++)
    { BaseClass *b = (BaseClass *)cd->baseclasses.data[i];

      if (b->base == this || isBaseOf2(b->base))
          return 1;
    }
    return 0;
}

/*******************************************
 * Determine if 'this' is a base class of cd.
 */

int ClassDeclaration::isBaseOf(ClassDeclaration *cd, int *poffset)
{
    //printf("ClassDeclaration::isBaseOf(this = '%s', cd = '%s')\n", toChars(), cd->toChars());
    if (poffset)
      *poffset = 0;
    while (cd)
    {
      if (this == cd->baseClass)
          return 1;

      /* cd->baseClass might not be set if cd is forward referenced.
       */
      if (!cd->baseClass && cd->baseclasses.dim && !cd->isInterfaceDeclaration())
      {
          cd->error("base class is forward referenced by %s", toChars());
      }

      cd = cd->baseClass;
    }
    return 0;
}

Dsymbol *ClassDeclaration::search(Loc loc, Identifier *ident, int flags)
{
    Dsymbol *s;
    //printf("%s.ClassDeclaration::search('%s')\n", toChars(), ident->toChars());

    if (scope)
    { Scope *sc = scope;
      sc->mustsemantic++;
      semantic(sc);
      sc->mustsemantic--;
    }

    if (!members || !symtab || scope)
    {
      error("is forward referenced when looking for '%s'", ident->toChars());
      //*(char*)0=0;
      return NULL;
    }

    s = ScopeDsymbol::search(loc, ident, flags);
    if (!s)
    {
      // Search bases classes in depth-first, left to right order

      int i;

      for (i = 0; i < baseclasses.dim; i++)
      {
          BaseClass *b = (BaseClass *)baseclasses.data[i];

          if (b->base)
          {
            if (!b->base->symtab)
                error("base %s is forward referenced", b->base->ident->toChars());
            else
            {
                s = b->base->search(loc, ident, flags);
                if (s == this)      // happens if s is nested in this and derives from this
                  s = NULL;
                else if (s)
                  break;
            }
          }
      }
    }
    return s;
}

/**********************************************************
 * fd is in the vtbl[] for this class.
 * Return 1 if function is hidden (not findable through search).
 */

#if DMDV2
int isf(void *param, FuncDeclaration *fd)
{
    //printf("param = %p, fd = %p %s\n", param, fd, fd->toChars());
    return param == fd;
}

int ClassDeclaration::isFuncHidden(FuncDeclaration *fd)
{
    //printf("ClassDeclaration::isFuncHidden(class = %s, fd = %s)\n", toChars(), fd->toChars());
    Dsymbol *s = search(0, fd->ident, 4|2);
    if (!s)
    { //printf("not found\n");
      /* Because, due to a hack, if there are multiple definitions
       * of fd->ident, NULL is returned.
       */
      return 0;
    }
    s = s->toAlias();
    OverloadSet *os = s->isOverloadSet();
    if (os)
    {
      for (int i = 0; i < os->a.dim; i++)
      {   Dsymbol *s = (Dsymbol *)os->a.data[i];
          FuncDeclaration *f2 = s->isFuncDeclaration();
          if (f2 && overloadApply(getModule(), f2, &isf, fd))
            return 0;
      }
      return 1;
    }
    else
    {
      FuncDeclaration *fdstart = s->isFuncDeclaration();
      //printf("%s fdstart = %p\n", s->kind(), fdstart);
      return !overloadApply(getModule(), fdstart, &isf, fd);
    }
}
#endif

/****************
 * Find virtual function matching identifier and type.
 * Used to build virtual function tables for interface implementations.
 */

FuncDeclaration *ClassDeclaration::findFunc(Identifier *ident, TypeFunction *tf)
{
    //printf("ClassDeclaration::findFunc(%s, %s) %s\n", ident->toChars(), tf->toChars(), toChars());

    ClassDeclaration *cd = this;
    Array *vtbl = &cd->vtbl;
    while (1)
    {
      for (size_t i = 0; i < vtbl->dim; i++)
      {
          FuncDeclaration *fd = ((Dsymbol*)vtbl->data[i])->isFuncDeclaration();
          if (!fd)
            continue;         // the first entry might be a ClassInfo

          //printf("\t[%d] = %s\n", i, fd->toChars());
          if (ident == fd->ident &&
            //tf->equals(fd->type)
            fd->type->covariant(tf) == 1
             )
          {   //printf("\t\tfound\n");
            return fd;
          }
          //else printf("\t\t%d\n", fd->type->covariant(tf));
      }
      if (!cd)
          break;
      vtbl = &cd->vtblFinal;
      cd = cd->baseClass;
    }

    return NULL;
}

void ClassDeclaration::interfaceSemantic(Scope *sc)
{
    InterfaceDeclaration *id = isInterfaceDeclaration();

    vtblInterfaces = new BaseClasses();
    vtblInterfaces->reserve(interfaces_dim);

    for (size_t i = 0; i < interfaces_dim; i++)
    {
      BaseClass *b = interfaces[i];

      // If this is an interface, and it derives from a COM interface,
      // then this is a COM interface too.
      if (b->base->isCOMinterface())
          com = 1;

      if (b->base->isCPPinterface() && id)
          id->cpp = 1;

      vtblInterfaces->push(b);
      b->copyBaseInterfaces(vtblInterfaces);
    }
}

/****************************************
 */

int ClassDeclaration::isCOMclass()
{
    return com;
}

int ClassDeclaration::isCOMinterface()
{
    return 0;
}

#if DMDV2
int ClassDeclaration::isCPPinterface()
{
    return 0;
}
#endif


/****************************************
 */

int ClassDeclaration::isAbstract()
{
    if (isabstract)
      return TRUE;
    for (int i = 1; i < vtbl.dim; i++)
    {
      FuncDeclaration *fd = ((Dsymbol *)vtbl.data[i])->isFuncDeclaration();

      //printf("\tvtbl[%d] = %p\n", i, fd);
      if (!fd || fd->isAbstract())
      {
          isabstract |= 1;
          return TRUE;
      }
    }
    return FALSE;
}


/****************************************
 * Determine if slot 0 of the vtbl[] is reserved for something else.
 * For class objects, yes, this is where the classinfo ptr goes.
 * For COM interfaces, no.
 * For non-COM interfaces, yes, this is where the Interface ptr goes.
 */

int ClassDeclaration::vtblOffset()
{
    return 1;
}

/****************************************
 */

const char *ClassDeclaration::kind()
{
    return "class";
}

/****************************************
 */

void ClassDeclaration::addLocalClass(ClassDeclarations *aclasses)
{
    aclasses->push(this);
}

/********************************* InterfaceDeclaration ****************************/

InterfaceDeclaration::InterfaceDeclaration(Loc loc, Identifier *id, BaseClasses *baseclasses)
    : ClassDeclaration(loc, id, baseclasses)
{
    com = 0;
    cpp = 0;
    if (id == Id::IUnknown)   // IUnknown is the root of all COM interfaces
    { com = 1;
      cpp = 1;          // IUnknown is also a C++ interface
    }
}

Dsymbol *InterfaceDeclaration::syntaxCopy(Dsymbol *s)
{
    InterfaceDeclaration *id;

    if (s)
      id = (InterfaceDeclaration *)s;
    else
      id = new InterfaceDeclaration(loc, ident, NULL);

    ClassDeclaration::syntaxCopy(id);
    return id;
}

void InterfaceDeclaration::semantic(Scope *sc)
{   int i;

    //printf("InterfaceDeclaration::semantic(%s), type = %p\n", toChars(), type);
    if (inuse)
      return;

    if (!sc)
      sc = scope;
    if (!parent && sc->parent && !sc->parent->isModule())
      parent = sc->parent;

    type = type->semantic(loc, sc);
    handle = type;

    if (!members)             // if forward reference
    { //printf("\tinterface '%s' is forward referenced\n", toChars());
      return;
    }
    if (symtab)               // if already done
    { if (!scope)
          return;
    }
    else
      symtab = new DsymbolTable();

    Scope *scx = NULL;
    if (scope)
    { sc = scope;
      scx = scope;            // save so we don't make redundant copies
      scope = NULL;
    }

    if (sc->stc & STCdeprecated)
    {
      isdeprecated = 1;
    }

    // Expand any tuples in baseclasses[]
    for (i = 0; i < baseclasses.dim; )
    { BaseClass *b = (BaseClass *)baseclasses.data[0];
      b->type = b->type->semantic(loc, sc);
      Type *tb = b->type->toBasetype();

      if (tb->ty == Ttuple)
      {   TypeTuple *tup = (TypeTuple *)tb;
          enum PROT protection = b->protection;
          baseclasses.remove(i);
          size_t dim = Argument::dim(tup->arguments);
          for (size_t j = 0; j < dim; j++)
          { Argument *arg = Argument::getNth(tup->arguments, j);
            b = new BaseClass(arg->type, protection);
            baseclasses.insert(i + j, b);
          }
      }
      else
          i++;
    }

    if (!baseclasses.dim && sc->linkage == LINKcpp)
      cpp = 1;

    // Check for errors, handle forward references
    for (i = 0; i < baseclasses.dim; )
    { TypeClass *tc;
      BaseClass *b;
      Type *tb;

      b = (BaseClass *)baseclasses.data[i];
      b->type = b->type->semantic(loc, sc);
      tb = b->type->toBasetype();
      if (tb->ty == Tclass)
          tc = (TypeClass *)tb;
      else
          tc = NULL;
      if (!tc || !tc->sym->isInterfaceDeclaration())
      {
          error("base type must be interface, not %s", b->type->toChars());
          baseclasses.remove(i);
          continue;
      }
      else
      {
          // Check for duplicate interfaces
          for (size_t j = 0; j < i; j++)
          {
            BaseClass *b2 = (BaseClass *)baseclasses.data[j];
            if (b2->base == tc->sym)
                error("inherits from duplicate interface %s", b2->base->toChars());
          }

          b->base = tc->sym;
          if (b->base == this || isBaseOf2(b->base))
          {
            error("circular inheritance of interface");
            baseclasses.remove(i);
            continue;
          }
          if (!b->base->symtab)
          {   // Try to resolve forward reference
            if (sc->mustsemantic && b->base->scope)
                b->base->semantic(NULL);
          }
          if (!b->base->symtab || b->base->scope || b->base->inuse)
          {
            //error("forward reference of base class %s", baseClass->toChars());
            // Forward reference of base, try again later
            //printf("\ttry later, forward reference of base %s\n", b->base->toChars());
            scope = scx ? scx : new Scope(*sc);
            scope->setNoFree();
            scope->module->addDeferredSemantic(this);
            return;
          }
      }
#if 0
      // Inherit const/invariant from base class
      storage_class |= b->base->storage_class & STC_TYPECTOR;
#endif
      i++;
    }

    interfaces_dim = baseclasses.dim;
    interfaces = (BaseClass **)baseclasses.data;

    interfaceSemantic(sc);

    if (vtblOffset())
      vtbl.push(this);        // leave room at vtbl[0] for classinfo

    // Cat together the vtbl[]'s from base interfaces
    for (i = 0; i < interfaces_dim; i++)
    { BaseClass *b = interfaces[i];

      // Skip if b has already appeared
      for (int k = 0; k < i; k++)
      {
          if (b == interfaces[i])
            goto Lcontinue;
      }

      // Copy vtbl[] from base class
      if (b->base->vtblOffset())
      {   int d = b->base->vtbl.dim;
          if (d > 1)
          {
            vtbl.reserve(d - 1);
            for (int j = 1; j < d; j++)
                vtbl.push(b->base->vtbl.data[j]);
          }
      }
      else
      {
          vtbl.append(&b->base->vtbl);
      }

      Lcontinue:
      ;
    }

    protection = sc->protection;
    storage_class |= sc->stc & STC_TYPECTOR;

    for (i = 0; i < members->dim; i++)
    {
      Dsymbol *s = (Dsymbol *)members->data[i];
      s->addMember(sc, this, 1);
    }

    sc = sc->push(this);
    sc->stc &= ~(STCfinal | STCauto | STCscope | STCstatic |
                 STCabstract | STCdeprecated | STC_TYPECTOR | STCtls | STCgshared);
    sc->stc |= storage_class & STC_TYPECTOR;
    sc->parent = this;
    if (isCOMinterface())
      sc->linkage = LINKwindows;
    else if (isCPPinterface())
      sc->linkage = LINKcpp;
    sc->structalign = 8;
    structalign = sc->structalign;
    sc->offset = PTRSIZE * 2;
    inuse++;
    for (i = 0; i < members->dim; i++)
    {
      Dsymbol *s = (Dsymbol *)members->data[i];
      s->semantic(sc);
    }
    inuse--;
    //members->print();
    sc->pop();
    //printf("-InterfaceDeclaration::semantic(%s), type = %p\n", toChars(), type);
}


/*******************************************
 * Determine if 'this' is a base class of cd.
 * (Actually, if it is an interface supported by cd)
 * Output:
 *    *poffset    offset to start of class
 *                OFFSET_RUNTIME    must determine offset at runtime
 * Returns:
 *    0     not a base
 *    1     is a base
 */

int InterfaceDeclaration::isBaseOf(ClassDeclaration *cd, int *poffset)
{
    unsigned j;

    //printf("%s.InterfaceDeclaration::isBaseOf(cd = '%s')\n", toChars(), cd->toChars());
    assert(!baseClass);
    for (j = 0; j < cd->interfaces_dim; j++)
    {
      BaseClass *b = cd->interfaces[j];

      //printf("\tbase %s\n", b->base->toChars());
      if (this == b->base)
      {
          //printf("\tfound at offset %d\n", b->offset);
          if (poffset)
          { *poffset = b->offset;
            if (j && cd->isInterfaceDeclaration())
                *poffset = OFFSET_RUNTIME;
          }
          return 1;
      }
      if (isBaseOf(b, poffset))
      {   if (j && poffset && cd->isInterfaceDeclaration())
            *poffset = OFFSET_RUNTIME;
          return 1;
      }
    }

    if (cd->baseClass && isBaseOf(cd->baseClass, poffset))
      return 1;

    if (poffset)
      *poffset = 0;
    return 0;
}


int InterfaceDeclaration::isBaseOf(BaseClass *bc, int *poffset)
{
    //printf("%s.InterfaceDeclaration::isBaseOf(bc = '%s')\n", toChars(), bc->base->toChars());
    for (unsigned j = 0; j < bc->baseInterfaces_dim; j++)
    {
      BaseClass *b = &bc->baseInterfaces[j];

      if (this == b->base)
      {
          if (poffset)
          { *poffset = b->offset;
            if (j && bc->base->isInterfaceDeclaration())
                *poffset = OFFSET_RUNTIME;
          }
          return 1;
      }
      if (isBaseOf(b, poffset))
      {   if (j && poffset && bc->base->isInterfaceDeclaration())
            *poffset = OFFSET_RUNTIME;
          return 1;
      }
    }
    if (poffset)
      *poffset = 0;
    return 0;
}

/****************************************
 * Determine if slot 0 of the vtbl[] is reserved for something else.
 * For class objects, yes, this is where the ClassInfo ptr goes.
 * For COM interfaces, no.
 * For non-COM interfaces, yes, this is where the Interface ptr goes.
 */

int InterfaceDeclaration::vtblOffset()
{
    if (isCOMinterface() || isCPPinterface())
      return 0;
    return 1;
}

int InterfaceDeclaration::isCOMinterface()
{
    return com;
}

#if DMDV2
int InterfaceDeclaration::isCPPinterface()
{
    return cpp;
}
#endif

/*******************************************
 */

const char *InterfaceDeclaration::kind()
{
    return "interface";
}


/******************************** BaseClass *****************************/

BaseClass::BaseClass()
{
    memset(this, 0, sizeof(BaseClass));
}

BaseClass::BaseClass(Type *type, enum PROT protection)
{
    //printf("BaseClass(this = %p, '%s')\n", this, type->toChars());
    this->type = type;
    this->protection = protection;
    base = NULL;
    offset = 0;

    baseInterfaces_dim = 0;
    baseInterfaces = NULL;
}

/****************************************
 * Fill in vtbl[] for base class based on member functions of class cd.
 * Input:
 *    vtbl        if !=NULL, fill it in
 *    newinstance !=0 means all entries must be filled in by members
 *                of cd, not members of any base classes of cd.
 * Returns:
 *    !=0 if any entries were filled in by members of cd (not exclusively
 *    by base classes)
 */

int BaseClass::fillVtbl(ClassDeclaration *cd, Array *vtbl, int newinstance)
{
    ClassDeclaration *id = base;
    int j;
    int result = 0;

    //printf("BaseClass::fillVtbl(this='%s', cd='%s')\n", base->toChars(), cd->toChars());
    if (vtbl)
      vtbl->setDim(base->vtbl.dim);

    // first entry is ClassInfo reference
    for (j = base->vtblOffset(); j < base->vtbl.dim; j++)
    {
      FuncDeclaration *ifd = ((Dsymbol *)base->vtbl.data[j])->isFuncDeclaration();
      FuncDeclaration *fd;
      TypeFunction *tf;

      //printf("        vtbl[%d] is '%s'\n", j, ifd ? ifd->toChars() : "null");

      assert(ifd);
      // Find corresponding function in this class
      tf = (ifd->type->ty == Tfunction) ? (TypeFunction *)(ifd->type) : NULL;
      fd = cd->findFunc(ifd->ident, tf);
      if (fd && !fd->isAbstract())
      {
          //printf("            found\n");
          // Check that calling conventions match
          if (fd->linkage != ifd->linkage)
            fd->error("linkage doesn't match interface function");

          // Check that it is current
          if (newinstance &&
            fd->toParent() != cd &&
            ifd->toParent() == base)
            cd->error("interface function %s.%s is not implemented",
                id->toChars(), ifd->ident->toChars());

          if (fd->toParent() == cd)
            result = 1;
      }
      else
      {
          //printf("            not found\n");
          // BUG: should mark this class as abstract?
          if (!cd->isAbstract())
            cd->error("interface function %s.%s isn't implemented",
                id->toChars(), ifd->ident->toChars());
          fd = NULL;
      }
      if (vtbl)
          vtbl->data[j] = fd;
    }

    return result;
}

void BaseClass::copyBaseInterfaces(BaseClasses *vtblInterfaces)
{
    //printf("+copyBaseInterfaces(), %s\n", base->toChars());
//    if (baseInterfaces_dim)
//    return;

    baseInterfaces_dim = base->interfaces_dim;
    baseInterfaces = (BaseClass *)mem.calloc(baseInterfaces_dim, sizeof(BaseClass));

    //printf("%s.copyBaseInterfaces()\n", base->toChars());
    for (int i = 0; i < baseInterfaces_dim; i++)
    {
      BaseClass *b = &baseInterfaces[i];
      BaseClass *b2 = base->interfaces[i];

      assert(b2->vtbl.dim == 0);    // should not be filled yet
      memcpy(b, b2, sizeof(BaseClass));

      if (i)                        // single inheritance is i==0
          vtblInterfaces->push(b);  // only need for M.I.
      b->copyBaseInterfaces(vtblInterfaces);
    }
    //printf("-copyBaseInterfaces\n");
}

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